Esping-Andersen, G. (2009), The Incomplete Revolution: Adapting to Women's New Roles, Cambridge: Polity Press
Guillemard, A. (1989), 'Trend towards early labour force withdrawal and the reorganisation of the life course' in Johnson, P., Conrad, E. and Thomson, D. (eds.), Workers Versus Pensioners: Intergenerational Justice in an Ageing World, Manchester University Press
Himmelweit, S. (2010), 'Policy on care: a help or hindrance to gender equality', in Scott, J., Dex, S. and Joshi, H. (eds.), Women and Employment: Changing Lives and New Challenges, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Hochschild, A. (1989), The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home, London: Piatkus
Ingelhart, R. and Norris, P. (2003), Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Lewis, J., Campbell, M. and Huerta, C. (2008), 'Patterns of paid and unpaid work in Western Europe', Journal of European Social Policy, 18(1): 21-37
Lewis, J. (2012), 'Gender equality and work-family balance in a cross-national perspective', in Scott, J., Dex, S. and Plagnol, A. (eds.), Gendered Lives: Gender Inequalities in Production and Reproduction, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Office for National Statistics (2011a), Social Trends 41: The Labour Market, available at: www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/social-trends-rd/social-trends/social-trends-41/social-trends-41---labour-market.pdf
Office for National Statistics (2011b), Mothers in the Labour Market, available at:
Schober, P. and Scott, J. (2012), 'Maternal employment and gender role attitudes: Dissonance among British men and women in the transition to parenthood', Work, Employment and Society, 26(3): 514-530
Scott, J. (2010), 'Changing gender role attitudes' in Scott, J., Dex, S. and Joshi, H. (eds.), Women and Employment: Changing Lives and New Challenges, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Scott, J., Alwin, D. and Braun, M. (1996), 'Generational change in gender-role attitudes: Britain in a cross-national perspective', Sociology, 30: 471-92
Scott, J. and Plagnol, A. (2012), 'Work-family conflict and wellbeing in Northern Europe' in Scott, J., Dex S. and Plagnol, A. (eds.), Gendered Lives: Gender Inequalities in Production and Reproduction, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Williams, F. (2004), Rethinking Families, London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation
Witherspoon, S. and Prior, G. (1991), 'Working mothers: free to choose' in Jowell, R., Brook, L. and Taylor B. (eds.), British Social Attitudes, the 8th Report, Aldershot: Dartmouth
NatCen Social Research would like to thank the Economic and Social Research Council (grant number RES-501-25-5002) for funding the questions reported in this chapter. The views expressed here are those of the authors alone.
- Download chapter
- When this question was originally developed in 1984, it asked about "a husband" and "a wife" rather than "a man" and "a woman". This was replaced by a variant of the question using the latter terminology in 1994.
- In 2002 and later years, answer categories were framed with reference to the respondent - "always me", "usually me", "about equal", "usually spouse/partner" and "always spouse/partner". In 1994 and earlier years, response categories were framed with reference to the gender of the individual performing the specific task - "always the woman", "usually the woman", "equal or both", "usually the man" or "always the man". The data presented in Table 5.6 was re-classified for the later years, to reflect the format in which the question was asked in earlier years.
- Related links