Politics / References

References

Almond, G. and Verba, S. (1965), The Civic Culture, Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown and Company

Bang, H. and Sorensen, E. (1999), 'The Everyday Maker: A New Challenge to Democratic Governance', Administrative Theory & Praxis, 21: 325-41

Bromley, C. and Curtice, J. (2002), 'Where have all the voters gone?' in Park, A., Curtice, J., Thompson, K., Jarvis, L. and Bromley, C. (eds.), British Social Attitudes: the 19th Report, London: Sage

Butt, S. and Curtice, J. (2010), 'Duty in decline? Trends in attitudes to voting' in Park, A., Curtice, J., Thomson, K., Phillips, M., Clery, E. and Butt, S. (eds.), British Social Attitudes: the 26th Report, London: Sage

Clarke, H., Sanders, D., Stewart, M. and Whitely, P. (2004), Political choice in Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Converse, P. (1969), 'Of time and partisan stability', Comparative Political Studies, 2: 139-72

Curtice, J. (2010), 'Political engagement: bridging the gulf? Britain's democracy after the 2010 election' in Park, A., Clery, E., Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Utting, D. (eds.), British Social Attitudes: the 28th Report, London: NatCen Social Research

Curtice, J. and Park, A. (2010), 'A tale of two crises: banks, MPs' expenses and public opinion' in Park, A., Curtice, J., Clery, E. and Bryson, C. (eds.), British Social Attitudes - the 27th Report: Exploring Labour's Legacy, London: Sage

Curtice, J., and Seyd, B. (2012), 'Constitutional reform: a recipe for restoring faith in our democracy?' in Park, A., Clery, E., Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Utting, D. (eds.), British Social Attitudes: the 29th Report, London: NatCen Social Research,
available at: www.bsa-29.natcen.ac.uk

Dalton, R. and Wattenberg, M. (eds.) (2000), Parties without partisans: political change in advanced industrial democracies, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hansard Society (2012), Audit of Political Engagement 9: The 2012 Report, London: Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government

Hansard Society (2013), Audit of Political Engagement 10: The 2013 Report, London: Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government

Gerber, A., Green, D. and Shachar, R. (2003), 'Voting may be habit-forming: evidence from a randomized field experiment', American Journal of Political Science, 47(3): 540-550

Martin, A. (2012), 'Political Participation among the Young in Australia: Testing Dalton's Good Citizen Thesis', Australian Journal of Political Science, 47(2): 211-226

McCaffrie, B. and Marsh, D. (2013), 'Beyond Mainstream Approaches to Political Participation: A Response to Aaron Martin', Australian Journal of Political Science, 48(1): 112-117

Plutzer, E. (2002), 'Becoming a habitual voter: inertia, resources, and growth in young adulthood', The American Political Science Review, 96(1): 41-56

The Electoral Commission (2013), Police and Crime Commissioner elections in England and Wales Report on the administration of the elections held on 15 November 2012, London: The Electoral Commission, available at: www.electoralcommission.org.uk/elections/past-elections/elections-for-police-and-crime-commissioners

UK Political Info, available at: www.ukpolitical.info/Turnout45.htm

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Notes
  1. Following failed attempts by Parliament to block Freedom of Information requests, it emerged that politicians across the board had taken liberties in the expense claims they submitted, many profiting substantially from the taxpayers' purse. This was followed by a number of resignations, sackings, de-selections and retirement announcements, as well as a handful of prosecutions for false accounting. All MPs' expenses and allowances in 2004-2008 were examined and around £500,000 has been requested back so far. www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2013/may/09/mps-told-repay-profits-homes.
  2. The direction of someone's party identification is ascertained via a sequence of questions as follows: first, all respondents are asked

    Generally speaking, do you think of yourself as a supporter of any one political party?


    Those who do not name a party in response are then asked

    Do you think of yourself as a little closer to one political party than to the others?


    Those who still do not name a party are then asked

    If there were a general election tomorrow, which political party do you think you would be most likely to support?


    3. This finding is sharply at variance with that reported by the Hansard Society's annual Audit of Political Engagement in 2012 and 2013, which found that there had been a marked decline in interest in politics. We would note that the change in the level of reported interest in that survey coincided with a change in the contractor undertaking it and thus perhaps might be a consequence of a change in how the survey was conducted (Hansard Society, 2013).

    4. Data are as follows:

    undefined

    5.The Labour government hosted such a page on its Number 10 website, and the coalition government launched a directgov webpage in 2011 to house all e-petitions (which repeatedly crashed on its first day as it received more than 1,000 unique visits a minute) ( www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/aug/04/government-e-petition-website-crashes). Any petition with more than 100,000 signatures is assured a chance to be debated and voted in the House of Commons. 

    6.  Data are as follows: 

    undefined
     

    7. Bases for Table 3.6 are as follows: 

    undefined

    8. Bases for Table 3.7 are as follows: 

    undefined

    9. Bases for Table 3.8 are as follows:

    undefined
     

    10.Bases for Table 3.9 are as follows:

    undefined
     

    11.Arguably the British Social Attitudes question is biased against young people, given it asks whether someone has "ever" done something. A better question might be whether an individual had undertaken an activity in the past 12 months (this is asked on the International Social Survey Programme, see Martin, 2012). 

    12.In 2012 the figures reported on British Social Attitudes were:

    undefined

    13. In 2010 our data showed:

    undefined

    14.Bases for Table 3.11 are as follows: 

    undefined

    15.Bases for Table 3.12 are as follows:

    undefined
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  • Notes
    1. Following failed attempts by Parliament to block Freedom of Information requests, it emerged that politicians across the board had taken liberties in the expense claims they submitted, many profiting substantially from the taxpayers' purse. This was followed by a number of resignations, sackings, de-selections and retirement announcements, as well as a handful of prosecutions for false accounting. All MPs' expenses and allowances in 2004-2008 were examined and around £500,000 has been requested back so far. www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2013/may/09/mps-told-repay-profits-homes.
    2. The direction of someone's party identification is ascertained via a sequence of questions as follows: first, all respondents are asked

      Generally speaking, do you think of yourself as a supporter of any one political party?


      Those who do not name a party in response are then asked

      Do you think of yourself as a little closer to one political party than to the others?


      Those who still do not name a party are then asked

      If there were a general election tomorrow, which political party do you think you would be most likely to support?


      3. This finding is sharply at variance with that reported by the Hansard Society's annual Audit of Political Engagement in 2012 and 2013, which found that there had been a marked decline in interest in politics. We would note that the change in the level of reported interest in that survey coincided with a change in the contractor undertaking it and thus perhaps might be a consequence of a change in how the survey was conducted (Hansard Society, 2013).

      4. Data are as follows:

      undefined

      5.The Labour government hosted such a page on its Number 10 website, and the coalition government launched a directgov webpage in 2011 to house all e-petitions (which repeatedly crashed on its first day as it received more than 1,000 unique visits a minute) ( www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/aug/04/government-e-petition-website-crashes). Any petition with more than 100,000 signatures is assured a chance to be debated and voted in the House of Commons. 

      6.  Data are as follows: 

      undefined
       

      7. Bases for Table 3.6 are as follows: 

      undefined

      8. Bases for Table 3.7 are as follows: 

      undefined

      9. Bases for Table 3.8 are as follows:

      undefined
       

      10.Bases for Table 3.9 are as follows:

      undefined
       

      11.Arguably the British Social Attitudes question is biased against young people, given it asks whether someone has "ever" done something. A better question might be whether an individual had undertaken an activity in the past 12 months (this is asked on the International Social Survey Programme, see Martin, 2012). 

      12.In 2012 the figures reported on British Social Attitudes were:

      undefined

      13. In 2010 our data showed:

      undefined

      14.Bases for Table 3.11 are as follows: 

      undefined

      15.Bases for Table 3.12 are as follows:

      undefined
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